Bangalore Silicon Valley of India

Bangalore (/bæŋɡəˈlɔːr/), officially Bengaluru (Kannada pronunciation: [ˈbeŋgɐɭuːɾu] (listen)), is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than 8 million and a metropolitan population of around 11 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India.[12] Located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau, at a height of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, Bangalore is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major cities of India.[13] Bangalore is widely regarded as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology (IT) exporter.

The city's history dates back to around 890 CE, as found in a stone inscription found at the Nageshwara Temple in Begur, Bangalore. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort, considered the foundation of modern Bangalore and its oldest areas, or petes, which still exist. After the fall of the Vijayanagar empire, Kempe Gowda declared independence; in 1638, a large Adil Shahi Bijapur army defeated Kempe Gowda III, and Bangalore was given to them as a jagir (feudal estate).The Mughals later captured Bangalore from and sold it to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.[14] When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands.

The city was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed under the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained the capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the city's official name in 2006.

Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India.[15][16] Recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Bangalore either the fourth or fifth most productive metro area of India.[10][17] It is home to many educational and research institutions. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations are located in the city. The city also houses the Kannada film industry and is a hub of sporting events. I the Ease of Living Index 2020t, i was ranked the most livable Indian city with a population of over a million.

Bangalore is an anglicised version of the city's Kannada name Bengalūru (Kannada: ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, Kannada pronunciation: [ˈbeŋɡəɭuːru] (listen)). It was the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore city today and was used by Kempegowda to christen the city as Bangalore at the time of its foundation. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga dynasty stone inscription on a vīra gallu (Kannada: ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು; lit. 'hero stone', a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). According to an inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" was the place of a battle in 890 CE.

An apocryphal story states that the twelfth-century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "Benda-Kaal-uru" (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru".[19][21][22] Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name as derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium (also known as the Indian Kino Tree), a species of dry and moist deciduous trees that grows abundantly in the region.

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru.[24] On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the name change.[25] The government of Karnataka accepted the proposal and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006.[26][27] The Union government approved this request, along with name changes for 11 other Karnataka cities, in October 2014. Hence, Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014.

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